WHEN U.S. WORKS PASS INTO THE PUBLIC DOMAIN
By Lolly Gasaway, University of North Carolina
Definition: A public domain work is a creative work that is not protected by copyright and which may be freely used by everyone. The reasons that the work is not protected include: (1) the term of copyright for the work has expired; (2) the author failed to satisfy statutory formalities to perfect the copyright or (3) the work is a work of the U.S. Government.
|DATE OF WORK||PROTECTED FROM||TERM|
|Created 1-1-78 or after||When work is fixed in tangible medium of expression||Life + 70 years1(or if work of corporate authorship, the shorter of 95 years from publication, or 120 years from creation2|
|Published before 1923||In public domain||None|
|Published from 1923 - 63||When published with notice3||28 years + could be renewed for 47 years, now extended by 20 years for a total renewal of 67 years. If not so renewed, now in public domain|
|Published from 1964 - 77||When published with notice||28 years for first term; now automatic extension of 67 years for second term|
|Created before 1-1-78 but not published||1-1-78, the effective date of the 1976 Act which eliminated common law copyright||Life + 70 years or 12-31-2002, whichever is greater|
1-1-78 but published between then and 12-31-2002
|1-1-78, the effective date of the 1976 Act which eliminated common law copyright||Life + 70 years or 12-31-2047 whichever is greater|
1 Term of joint works is measured by life of the longest-lived author.
2 Works for hire, anonymous and pseudonymous works also have this term. 17 U.S.C. § 302(c).
3 Under the 1909 Act, works published without notice went into the public domain upon publication. Works published without notice between 1-1-78 and 3-1-89, effective date of the Berne Convention Implementation Act, retained copyright only if efforts to correct the accidental omission of notice was made within five years, such as by placing notice on unsold copies. 17 U.S.C. § 405. (Notes courtesy of Tom Field, Franklin Pierce Law Center and Lolly Gasaway).
Chart may be freely duplicated or linked to for nonprofit purposes. No permission needed. Please include web address on all reproductions of chart so recipients know where to find any updates. Last updated 11-04-03
In Section 102(a) of the US Copyright Act, copyright protection is extended to "original works of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression." Facts, ideas and US government documents are not copyrightable.